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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-102

Online since Thursday, January 6, 2022

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Studies on use of heat in the aqueous extraction of miswak p. 55
Mohamed Sharkasi, Mayouf Elsharif, Abdussalam Sughir, Idris El-Mahdi
Introduction: The antimicrobial properties of Miswak (Salvadora persica) are well documented, and the use of its extracts in the formulation of toothpastes and mouth rinses are well established. Most of the literature agrees that the organic extracts are more effective than aqueous extracts. Aims: The aim of the study was to prepare aqueous Miswak extracts using three different methods. The difference between the methods is the amount of heating used for their preparation. Furthermore, to evaluate stability during storage of such extracts, their pH, and their antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: Miswak extracts were prepared by maceration, infusion, and decoction methods, followed by evaluation of their extraction efficiency, stability, pH, viscosity, and antimicrobial activity. Results: A correlation was found between pH of extracts and their viscosity. The pH of extract increases to 6.5 when extensive heat was used during preparation, which is close to the normal pH of saliva and oral cavity. The accompanied increase in viscosity was an indication of increased extraction efficiency. Suppression of freezing point confirmed such observation for extracts prepared by decoction. The only positive antibacterial activity was observed for decoction extract, but it was less than that of chlorhexiden. For minimum inhibitory concentration estimation, it was found that almost 50% w/v of the extract must be used to provide the minimum microbial inhibitory effect. Conclusions: Miswak components appear to be thermostable ingredients, and the method of decoction can produce stable and effective Miswak extract.
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Contributing indications that provoke C-section: A study from tertiary care hospitals p. 61
Nikhil Singh, Rajnish Srivastava, Surabhi Srivastava, Pankaj Singh Patel
Background: Both cesarean-section (CS) delivery (CD) and vaginal delivery (VD) is associated with well-known measurable short- and long-term maternal and neonatal complications and benefits. Objective: The present retrospective observational study was conducted on a preliminary basis to evaluate the contributing factors that provoke CS delivery. Materials and Methods: The short-term (6 months) retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay and Northern Railway divisional hospital Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample size was calculated accordingly with a relative precision of 10.2% of prevalence and was found to be 140 and we have taken the sample size of 345. Results: The prevalence of CD for a particular course of duration was found to be 36.23%. The risk of CD increased (P < 0.001) with increased BMI. However, differential limits of normal BMI signify that lower limit of normal BMI possessed high % of CS. As the education profile was getting high the possibility of CS was found to be increased (P < 0.001). Women with negative Rh factor the probability of CS in terms of percentage was found to be 87.5%. There was a proportionate possibility of CS with an increased gap between parities. The % mortality of new-born by CD and VD was 14.28% and 85.71%, respectively, which signifies that CS prevents infant mortality. There was 99.2% possibility of undergoing CS if a woman possessing medical complications. Conclusion: The present study acknowledged that CD ensures feto-maternal safety. However, the study also highlighted some probable indications that might engender CD.
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Assessment of level of knowledge understood and memorized of panoramic anatomical landmarks among dental students in Benghazi, Libya p. 69
Fatma Omar Elsheikhi, Naeima Betamar, Iman Bugaighis
Background: Evaluation of skill competency and quality requirements of dental students plays an essential role in dental education. Aim: To investigate the level of knowledge of cranio-dentofacial anatomic structures observed on panoramic radiographs by 4th-year dental students and graduates in internship year at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Benghazi. Materials and Methods: A total of 73 4th-year dental students and 92 interns attending the 2018/2019 academic year participated in this study to identify 24 landmarks on a traced panoramic radiograph. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analyses were performed (P < 5%). Results: The overall correct answer rate for 24 anatomical landmarks was 26.2% (±0.23) among the 4th-year students and 29.68% (±0.24) among interns. Significant differences were observed only between hard tissues and soft tissues/air layer. For both groups, Head of the condyle was the most identified (79.5% for the 4th-year and 71.7% for interns), while the middle nasal concha was the least recognized structure (100% incorrect answer). Conclusions: Both 4th-year students and interns had a similar level of knowledge in identifying anatomical structures shown on panoramic radiography. The teaching program should focus on familiarizing dental students with the unidentified anatomical structures on panoramic radiographs.
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Characterization and antibiotic resistance of staphylococci strains isolated from brack hospital in the Southern Region of Libya p. 75
Ghada M Alshaibani, Aisha M Shahlol, Ahmed S Abid, Samira G Amri, Ezzeddin Sh Aghila, Ghaith A Abdalah, Mohamed Omar Ahmed
Background: Staphylococcus species are one of the most important healthcare-associated pathogens able to acquire and spread multidrug-resistant determinants. Objectives: The present study investigated and analyzed 110 potential Staphylococcus species isolated from various clinical and nonclinical samples at Brack hospital. Materials and Methods: A nonselective laboratory approach was applied, using cultural characteristics, Gram stain, and catalase reactivity followed by confirmation at the species levels and determination the susceptibility against antimicrobial agents using the Phoenix automated microbiological system. Results: In total, 57.5% were confirmed as species and subspecies of Staphylococcus represented by ten different species: nine subspecies of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (76.2%) and one coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoNS) subspecies (23.8%). Of these strains, 16.6% were identified as methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) mostly of the CoNS group expressing significant resistance to important antimicrobial classes. Conclusion: This study reports a high prevalence of various staphylococci species, particularly of CoNS group expressing multidrug resistance patterns of public health concern, from a healthcare setting in the south region of Libya. The identification of higher rate of MRCoNS underlines the importance of monitoring all multidrug-resistant staphylococci species requiring further epidemiological investigations.
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Risk assessment for foot ulceration in a nigerian diabetic population attending university of Ilorin teaching hospital, Ilorin p. 81
John Kola Olarinoye, Abiodun Hamza Bello, Saint Ayodele Ogunkeyede, Adebiyi Bunmi Aderibigbe, Babakayode Abel Olagbaye, Kolawole Wasiu Wahab
Background: Complications from diabetic foot ulcer often pose a strong threat to the life of patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for foot ulceration among people living with diabetes attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one diabetic patients were interviewed with a questionnaire to obtain their sociodemographic, foot care, and diabetes-related details. Both of their feet were then assessed for dermatological changes, musculoskeletal deformities, neurological and vascular complications. Risk stratification was done according to the diabetic foot risk classification system of the International Working Group on Diabetic Foot. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square test while correlation between the risk categories and patients' characteristics was determined using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, setting statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results and Conclusion: Intermittent claudication was found in 40 patients (26.5%), 76 (50.3) had paresthesia. Eighty nine (58.9%) had foot care education but only 7 (4.6%) had special diabetic foot wears. Impaired monofilament sensitivity was seen in 27 (17.9%) of the right feet and in 23 (15.2%) of the left feet. Significant peripheral neuropathy was detected in 36 (23.9%) on the right and 30 (19.9%) on the left side. It was found that the longer the duration of diabetes, the higher the risk (P = 0.04). Furthermore, patients who had no education had significantly higher risk for diabetes foot ulcer (DFU) (P = 0.01). High risk was discovered among the retirees (P = 0.01). In addition, presence of kidney disease (P = 0.046), cardiovascular disease (P = 0.001), and visual impairment (P = 0.19) all conferred a high risk for developing DFU in our study population. Overall assessment showed that the prevalence of “foot-at-risk' in this study was 30.5% which we think is substantial enough to attract a more serious attention.
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The use of chitosan in the preparation of bioadhesive buccal films: Film-forming ability and sustaining ibuprofen release p. 91
Fadia H Mussa, Haytham H Mousi, Mahmud S Treki
Aim: Different polymers were introduced into Chitosan bioadhesive buccal films to achieve substantial success in sustaining Ibuprofen release for few hours, with reasonable bioadhesion strength. Design: Thin, isolatable, transparent, and elastic films of these copolymers were prepared. Nineteen formulations have been classified as six systems according to the percentages of hydrocolloids used. Materials and Methods: The films were prepared using the solvent casting technique. Bioadhesion study was conducted using the stomach mucosa of a sacrificed albino rabbit. Hydrocolloids such as Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose (HPC), Chitosan, and Methyl Cellulose (MC), in addition to other polymers, were used in addition to Ibuprofen as a model drug. Results: The mechanical strength and flexibility of the films were confirmed with no signs of breaking down. Selected films composed of about 60% (w/w) HPC were found to show higher tendency to adhere to the stomach mucosa than lower percentages of the same polymer. Chitosan films have released more than 78% of Ibuprofen content in the 1st h of release study. The introduction of MC in these films has led to a slow but continuous increase in the percentage of drugs released, reaching the climax of 82% after 4 h. Conclusion: Films made of formulation (L17) were found to be the most ideal for both releasing appreciable amount of drug (about 98% in 4 h), and their high tendency to adhering to the rabbit mucosa (71.00 Mn/m) giving enough time to exert the drug's effect locally. The mechanism of drug release was found to follow Higuchi's diffusion model for some systems and the classical first-order kinetics for others.
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Preliminary report on histopathological aspect of fibrous dysplasia in third dimension-3D images and video p. 99
Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash P Tamgadge
Fibrous dysplasia is a fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw which runs a chronic course. It has been well explained in the literature through high-quality 2D clinical, radiographic, and histopathological images. But the clinicians and most of the times students too, don't understand the histopathological aspect of fibrous dysplasia through the description of text and existing 2D images. This article is preliminary attempt to explain the key events of histopathological aspects of fibrous dysplasia in third dimension in a life-like manner through 3D images and video which author herself has designed, for better understanding not only by oral and general pathologists, and students but also by patients, which is the unique feature of this manuscript. Preliminary 3D images and videos on histopathological aspect of fibrous dysplasia were designed by using 3Dmax (Autodesk Media and Entertainment) and Adobe premiere pro 5.5 software which is a video editing software (Adobe Systems). Internal cellular environment of a lesion has been created in a life-like manner through 3D animation video. Histopathological aspect of all oral lesions should be explained in this manner for better understanding.
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