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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-90

Risk assessment for foot ulceration in a nigerian diabetic population attending university of Ilorin teaching hospital, Ilorin

1 Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria
2 Department of Surgery, Plastic Surgery Unit, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria
3 Department of Anatomy, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria
4 Department of Medicine Neurology Unit, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
John Kola Olarinoye
Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/liuj.liuj_83_21

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Background: Complications from diabetic foot ulcer often pose a strong threat to the life of patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for foot ulceration among people living with diabetes attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one diabetic patients were interviewed with a questionnaire to obtain their sociodemographic, foot care, and diabetes-related details. Both of their feet were then assessed for dermatological changes, musculoskeletal deformities, neurological and vascular complications. Risk stratification was done according to the diabetic foot risk classification system of the International Working Group on Diabetic Foot. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square test while correlation between the risk categories and patients' characteristics was determined using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, setting statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results and Conclusion: Intermittent claudication was found in 40 patients (26.5%), 76 (50.3) had paresthesia. Eighty nine (58.9%) had foot care education but only 7 (4.6%) had special diabetic foot wears. Impaired monofilament sensitivity was seen in 27 (17.9%) of the right feet and in 23 (15.2%) of the left feet. Significant peripheral neuropathy was detected in 36 (23.9%) on the right and 30 (19.9%) on the left side. It was found that the longer the duration of diabetes, the higher the risk (P = 0.04). Furthermore, patients who had no education had significantly higher risk for diabetes foot ulcer (DFU) (P = 0.01). High risk was discovered among the retirees (P = 0.01). In addition, presence of kidney disease (P = 0.046), cardiovascular disease (P = 0.001), and visual impairment (P = 0.19) all conferred a high risk for developing DFU in our study population. Overall assessment showed that the prevalence of “foot-at-risk' in this study was 30.5% which we think is substantial enough to attract a more serious attention.

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