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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| January-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 21, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Introduction to nanotechnology: definition, terms, occurrence and applications in environment
MHS Ahmeda, NHS Ahmida, AA Ahmeida
January-June 2017, 2(1):12-26
DOI:10.21502/limuj.003.02.2017  
Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary technique that involves application based on the synthesis of molecules in nano-scale size range. Nanotechnology is also seen as new and fast emerging field that involves the manufacture, processing and application of structure, device and system by controlling shape and size in nanometer scale. The concept of nanotechnology is driven from the Greek word nano (meaning dwarf). The nano-particles are defined as a discrete entity that has dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. It is the small size in combination with the chemical composition and surface structure that gives the nano-particles their unique features. The alterations in physical properties serve to enhance versatility and efficacy in product development, resulting in more effective industrial and medical applications. As a result of the widespread use of nanotechnology and nano-materials, these particles find their way into the environment. Therefore, a focus on the source of nano-particles in the environment and their effects is included. This review concentrate on the recent information about analytical developments to assess the occurrence, fate and behavior of nano-materials in environment. It also focuses on the applications of nanotechnology in environment, especially in the area of air and water purifications.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  732 206 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus isolates in Tripoli Central Hospital, Libya
SM Aetrugh, MA Aboshkiwa, WM Husien, ME Erhuma, M Corrente, E Grandolfo, MS Ellabib, TM Emahbes, MI Mustafa
January-June 2017, 2(1):74-83
DOI:10.21502/limuj.010.02.2017  
Background: Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci could lead to increased morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the prevalence of infections with these organisms in healthcare facilities and in the community in Tripoli. This study investigated the in vitro susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) to antimicrobial agents, and determined the molecular characteristics of MRSA. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study aiming at determining the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of (MRSA) and (MRCNS) isolated from non-duplicated clinical specimens in Tripoli Central Hospital (TCH) between June 2013 and June 2014. Isolates were identified using standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion method and automated systems. DNA of the MRSA isolates was used for PCR to determine the molecular analysis. Results: 218 isolates of Staphylococci were obtained, 71.6% were coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) and 28.4% were coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS). 39.7% of CPS were MRSA, while 75.8% of CNS were MRCNS. The rates of hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) among MRSA isolates were 61.3% and 38.7% respectively. A similar trend was detected among MRCNS isolates, where 74.5% were HA-MRCNS and 25.5% were CA-MRCNS. All the MRSA and MRCNS isolates were susceptible (100%) to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin and moxifloxacin. Generally, hospital-acquired strains showed higher resistance rates than community-acquired ones to the most commonly tested non-beta-lactam antibiotics. 35.5% of all staphylococcal isolates exhibited mecA+ gene and 12.9% expressed mecC+. Meanwhile, 38.7% of MRSA isolates harbored both mecA and mecC. However, 12.9% of MSSA isolates were negative for both mecA and mecC. The mecA gene was detectable in 59.1% and 40.9 % of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA isolates respectively. Conclusion: Hospital-acquired MRSA and MRCNS isolates had higher resistance rates to non-beta lactam antimicrobial drugs than the respective community-acquired isolates. This was shown by early detection of mecC gene among MRSA isolates.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  192 57 -
Antibiotics consumption in the Eastern Region Of Libya 2012-2013
AA Khalifa, SA Bukhatwa, MM Elfakhri
January-June 2017, 2(1):55-63
DOI:10.21502/limuj.008.02.2017  
Background: Drug utilization studies conducted in Libya during the period 1991-2013, have pointed out the irrational use of antibiotics as a common practice that costs the health system more than 7.7 million Libyan Dinars / year. The aim of this study is to assess the trend of antimicrobial consumption in the Eastern region of Libya during 2012 – 2013. Methods: Antimicrobial consumption data from the years 2012 and 2013 were obtained mainly from Benghazi office, Medical Supply Organization (MSO; the only official drug-importing body in Libya). This study is concerned with antibiotics imported only to the Eastern region of Libya, population of which represents approximately 35% of total Libyan population. The WHO, Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical (ATC) classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) methodology were used to calculate antibiotic consumption. The total antimicrobial consumption data were calculated as DDD/1000 inhabitants/day. Results: Total utilization of antibiotics decreased dramatically from 15.47 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2012 to 4.30 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013 which in turn shows a significant decline compared to 41.72 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day during the period 1991-1993. Consumption of penicillins decreased from 19.902 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day during 1991-1993 to 1.896 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day during 2012-2013 with pattern of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid consumption equals to 3 times ampicillin consumption and is the highest compared to all penicillins. This was accompanied by a prominent increase in consumption of amphenicols and fusidic acid during 2012-2013 noting that fusidic acid consumption was the highest among all antibiotics. Conclusion: MSO since 2011 (post 17th February 2011 revolution) lost its control on importing medicines due to receiving many drugs as donations from different international sources without acceptable level of coordination. This has been reflected on drug purchasing policy of MSO during 2013, which failed to regain the previously accepted level of DDD/1000 inhabitants/day antibiotics consumption. The decreased consumption of penicillins together with increased consumption of amphenicols and fusidic acid complies with the pattern of antibiotic resistance reported previously in Libya. Similar studies should be conducted to evaluate national drug consumption under normal conditions to be compared with regional and international data.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  146 82 -
Reduction of cholesterol and fasting blood sugar levels by one month supplementation of fresh garlic in diabetic Libyan patients: A double blind, baseline controlled study
AI Banigesh, AR Hamad, AA Dihom, IM El-Mahdi
January-June 2017, 2(1):47-54
DOI:10.21502/limuj.007.02.2017  
Background: The therapeutic effects of fresh garlic remain controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate whether supplementation of fresh garlic could improve blood glucose and cholesterol profile in Libyan diabetic patients with moderate blood cholesterol. Methods: Forty-six diabetic patients were randomly assigned to either fresh garlic alone (≈2 grams/day), or fresh garlic in combination with glibenclamide taken on an empty stomach every morning for a month. Serum blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure were measured before starting treatment and after the end of the treatment period. Results: Fresh garlic alone was able to decrease the mean serum cholesterol levels by 26 mg/dl (84% of the original base values), while the combination of fresh garlic and glibenclamide produced a 28 mg/dl decrease in the mean serum cholesterol (85% of the original base values). Fresh garlic alone was able as well to decrease the mean blood glucose levels by 20 mg/dl (85% of the original base values), while the combination of fresh garlic and glibenclamide produced a 60 mg/dl decrease in the serum glucose levels (72% of the original base values). Neither treatment had a significant effect on the mean systolic or diastolic blood pressures after 30 days of treatment. Conclusion: Administration of fresh garlic every morning for a month significantly reduced the blood cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Thus administering dietary fresh garlic daily to diabetic patients might have cardio-protective effects on diabetic patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  130 63 -
Pattern of ocular trauma in Benghazi eye hospital, Benghazi, Libya
MM Gebril
January-June 2017, 2(1):40-46
DOI:10.21502/limuj.006.02.2017  
Background: This study was conducted to determine the pattern of ocular trauma in Benghazi- Libya. Methods: All cases of ocular trauma admitted to Benghazi eye hospital from January 2011 to August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed for open- or closed-globe injury (OGI or CGI). Data extracted included age, sex, residence, initial and final visual acuity (VA), cause and treatment of injury. The injuries were classified by Ocular Trauma Classification System. Results: Out of the 805 patients, there were 540 patients (67.0%) with Closed Globe Injury and 254 patients (31.5%) with Open Globe Injury and 11 patients (1.3%) with mixed trauma. Conclusion: This analysis shows a pattern of eye injury largely similar to reports from other parts of the world. Eye injury affected mainly younger age groups and road traffic accidents were the most common cause.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  145 38 -
Post-thyroidectomy permanent hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism: frequency and risk factors
MS Elsaeiti, KD Alsaeiti
January-June 2017, 2(1):84-91
DOI:10.21502/limuj.011.02.2017  
Background: Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication after thyroidectomy and the main reason for frequent outpatients' visits; however, there is a poor understanding of its outcomes, and no clear follow-up strategies are available. We aimed to evaluate the frequency and risk factors of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia hypoparathyroidism in Libyan patients. Methods: A case series study was conducted. The serum calcium and parathyroid hormone level (PTH) were measured at least 8 months post thyroidectomy. Results: 124 patients were reviewed in this study; 19 (15.3 %) were males and 105 (84.7 %) were females. 30.6 % of males and 13.7% of females developed hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Total thyroidectomy (TT) was performed in 62.9 % of all patients, while 24.2% of all patients underwent near total thyroidectomy (NTT). 12.1% of all patients underwent bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy (BST) and 1 patient underwent hemi thyroidectomy (0.8%). The risk of hypocalcemia was higher in patients with malignant thyroid disease in comparison to benign thyroids (45.8 % vs. 27% of patients). Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was the most common cause of both hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism (45.5% for both) followed by Graves' disease (22.2% and 14.8% for hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism respectively). Hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism were more frequent in patients who underwent TT (19.2%), as compared to patients who underwent NTT (6.6 %). Among nine patients who were operated on twice, three patients had hypocalcemia, and two of them were found to be hypoparathyroid; one case is diagnosed with Graves' disease, while the other was diagnosed as PTC. Conclusion: Total thyroidectomy, and re-operation are associated with increased prevalence of permanent hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism when compared to less extensive thyroid resection modes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  132 49 -
The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders among a group of libyan dental students
I Bugaighis, R Elgehani, M Orafi, A Elatrash
January-June 2017, 2(1):64-73
DOI:10.21502/limuj.009.02.2017  
Background: It has been reported that Tempro-Mandibular-disorders (TMD) is the most common orofacial pain source of non-dental origin. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study is to explore the prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD among a group of dental students in Benghazi-Libya. Methods: The examined group comprised 100 students [17 males and 83 females; mean age: 24.8±2.23 years. The assessment was undertaken following Helkimo's measures. The prevalence and severity of TMD was determined using a self-reported anamnestic questionnaire and clinical examination. Descriptive statistics was employed to explore the frequencies of the examined variables. Linear correlation coefficient was conducted between the reported symptoms and recorded signs and between the reported symptoms and the clinical dysfunction scores (CDS). The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: A total of 37% of the students reported some level of TMD symptoms [32% mild (Ai1); 5% severe (AiII)]. On the other hand, majority of the students (93%) demonstrated a range of TMD signs [76% mild (DiI); 17% moderate (DiII)]. Although linear correlation coefficient between the reported symptoms (Ai) and the recorded signs (Di) (r=0.32) and between the reported symptoms (Ai) and the CDS (r=0.37) were low, they were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mild to moderate prevalence of TMD appears to exist among Libyan dental students.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  113 38 -
CASE REPORTS
“Gunshot injury to the pelvis”. The bullet voided through the urethra
AM Etabbal, AE EL Shaikhy
January-June 2017, 2(1):28-34
DOI:10.21502/limuj.004.02.2017  
Gunshot injuries (GSIs) are considered an emergency as life threatening. The gunshots injuries in the urinary tract are uncommon. The high-velocity of bullet can cause both a penetrating injury to the target organs as well as a blast injury to nearby structures, in addition to thermal injuries. In most cases, laparotomy is required to remove the bullet and to repair the injuries. The phenomenon of spontaneous migration of retained bullet to different parts of the body has been described in medical literature. Here, we present a patient who sustained penetrating GSI to the pelvis, without organ injuries, including the bladder. The bullet initially was retained within peri-vesical fat and the bladder wall while the mucosa remained intact, then it migrated into the bladder and came out through the urethra during voiding on the sixth day of the injury.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  97 35 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nicotine dependence and role of pharmacist in nicotine addiction control
FM Sherif
January-June 2017, 2(1):3-11
DOI:10.21502/limuj.002.02.2017  
There are about one billion smokers in the world and death toll due to smoking is almost six million people a year. The tobacco use is increasing specially in the third world countries. By 2020, death will increase to more than 70% of smokers in some developing countries. Continuous tobacco use can cause tolerance and dependence. Tobacco dependence is the main cause of morbidity and mortality among smokers. Nicotine dependence is assumed to be present if tolerance, withdrawal and compulsive desire to consume tobacco are existing. It is well documented that environmental and genetic factors influence the possibility of nicotine addiction. Thus, actions are needed at different levels to avoid the health hazards induced by tobacco smoking. Governments have to play a vital role in smoking control. People at large needs to be involved in the fight against smoking. Within the health-sector, health professionals as physicians and pharmacists have a leading role to play because of their knowledge about the dangerous of smoking and its treatment in general. Community pharmacist is one of the most accessible health care professional to the public and can fulfil fundamental role in public health as key providers of tobacco cessation and prevention services. In addition, pharmacists have a significant knowledge of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, drugs used in smoking cessation and with special training can be involved in the treatment programs. Moreover, media campaigns (pharmacy and non-pharmacy groups) are needed to encourage smoking cessation and discourage smoking initiation. However, with any tobacco-use prevention program, it should always be remembered that long time is needed before success becomes effective and apparent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  89 34 -
EDITORIAL
2016-A year of success for Libyan International Medical University Journal [IMUJ]
The editorial team (LIMUJ)
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-2
DOI:10.21502/limuj.001.02.2017  
Full text not available  [PDF]
  87 31 -
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Importance of whole exome sequencing in diagnosis of diseases (the Libyan experience)
M Kara
January-June 2017, 2(1):35-39
DOI:10.21502/limuj.005.02.2017  
Full text not available  [PDF]
  60 31 -