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  Most popular articles (Since December 20, 2017)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of efficacy of mulligan's mobilization with movement with maitland mobilization along with conventional therapy in the patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial
Aniqa Kiran, Muhammad Junaid Ijaz, Muhammad Mustafa Qamar, Ayesha Basharat, Akhtar Rasul, Waqas Ahmed
January-June 2018, 3(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_12_18  
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the outcome and efficacy of Mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) with Maitland mobilization along with conventional therapy in the patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial study was performed at the Department of Physiotherapy, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Sixty-two patients were selected for the study. MWM was introduced in half of the patients and Maitland mobilizations in the second half for 2 weeks. The goniometry, visual analog scale (VAS), knee range of motion (ROM), and Western Ontario McMaster OA (WOMAC) Index for knee OA were the assessment tools used to assess all patients before and after 2 weeks of intervention. Paired sample t-test was used for analysis of results. Results: The mean pre- and postdifferences in MWM group were 4.06 ± 0.99, 10.19 ± 3.87, and 19.41 ± 7.58 for VAS, ROM flexion, and WOMAC Index, respectively, while the pre- and postmean difference values for Maitland mobilization group were 3.355 ± 1.05, 10.19 ± 5.5, and 12.28 ± 7.029 for VAS, ROM flexion, and WOMAC Index, respectively. The mean differences of both treatment interventions individually were significant and showed that both were clinically effective in treating the patients of knee OA. Conclusion: It was concluded that patients in both groups showed improvement in pain, ROM, and functions.
  1,834 290 -
The physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution
Tauwfik Mohamed Salih, Idris Mohamed El-Mahdi
July-December 2018, 3(2):42-48
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_16_18  
Aims: The aim of this work is to “predict” the remaining shelf-life of chloramphenicol (CH) eye drops, commercially marketed, using the theoretical “Longland–Rowbotham model,”” followed by confirmation of findings by practical means. Materials and Methods: The methods used for the evaluation of CH-eye drops included the assay of the active ingredient, sterility testing, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination using official methods during 6 months stability study at variable temperatures (4, 25°C). Furthermore, a 3-month accelerated stability study was carried out. Statistical analysis tests included Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Results: The prediction model indicated that in pessimistic conditions, the remaining shelf life was reduced to a merely 1 month following production (this is versus the 2 years expiration date given by manufacturer). However, the samples analyzed throughout a 6-month stability study revealed that storing CH solution at 4°C or 25°C does not produce any statistical difference regarding drug content, MIC, or sterility. Accelerated stability studies for 3 months period showed that only after 2 months from storage at 55°C the drug will start to degrade and a statistical difference could be observed. Conclusion: Storing CH-eye drops at room temperature for up to 6 months appears to have no effect on the stability of this antibiotic.
  1,587 94 -
Effects of the aqueous extract from Abelmoschus esculentus L peel on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia induced by dexamethasone in rats
Aisha Mohamed Dugani, Wesal Issa Alkhetally, Elham Omran Elghedafi, Feras Walid Alkayed
January-June 2018, 3(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_1_17  
Background: Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemias are common clinical problem among users of glucocorticoids (GCs). The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of Abelmoschus esculentus peel (AEPE) on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia induced in rats by dexamethasone (DEXA). Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. Each group was treated for 10 days either with 2% carboxymethylcellulose orally (normal control); 10 mg/kg DEXA subcutaneously (hyperglycemic group); 100 mg/kg AEPE orally plus 10 mg/kg DEXA subcutaneously (treatment group 1); or 200 mg/kg AEPE orally plus 10 mg/kg DEXA subcutaneously (treatment group 2). Animals were killed after 10 days of treatments by decapitation, their blood collected for the analysis of blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: Treatment with DEXA induced a significant increase in blood glucose and all lipids and a significant reduction in body weights. After 10 days of treatment, 100 mg/kg of AEPE was able to significantly reduce the effect of DEXA on triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) only. 200 mg/kg of AEPE was able to significantly reduce the effect of DEXA on blood glucose levels, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Both doses of AEPE were able to increase high-density lipoprotein. Conclusion: This study suggests that the AEPE could be beneficial in protecting against GC-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.
  1,093 162 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Introduction to nanotechnology: definition, terms, occurrence and applications in environment
MHS Ahmeda, NHS Ahmida, AA Ahmeida
January-June 2017, 2(1):12-26
DOI:10.21502/limuj.003.02.2017  
Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary technique that involves application based on the synthesis of molecules in nano-scale size range. Nanotechnology is also seen as new and fast emerging field that involves the manufacture, processing and application of structure, device and system by controlling shape and size in nanometer scale. The concept of nanotechnology is driven from the Greek word nano (meaning dwarf). The nano-particles are defined as a discrete entity that has dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. It is the small size in combination with the chemical composition and surface structure that gives the nano-particles their unique features. The alterations in physical properties serve to enhance versatility and efficacy in product development, resulting in more effective industrial and medical applications. As a result of the widespread use of nanotechnology and nano-materials, these particles find their way into the environment. Therefore, a focus on the source of nano-particles in the environment and their effects is included. This review concentrate on the recent information about analytical developments to assess the occurrence, fate and behavior of nano-materials in environment. It also focuses on the applications of nanotechnology in environment, especially in the area of air and water purifications.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  732 206 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Influence of micronization on the physical properties of salbutamol sulfate as a model drug used in dry powder inhalation
Antesar M Boshhiha, Nora Anne Urbanetz
January-June 2018, 3(1):8-15
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_4_18  
Purpose: Investigation of the crystallinity of salbutamol sulfate a model drug used in the dry powder inhalation formulation. Materials and Methods: Salbutamol sulfate was supplied kindly by Lindopharm (Hilden, Germany). Salbutamol sulfate was milled using an air jet milling process, the particle size and morphology were determined using laser diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy. The drug was subjected to conditioning through storage at 52.8% and 75% relative humidity for 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks, respectively. The drug crystallinity was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and water vapor sorption techniques. Results and Discussion: Conditioning of salbutamol sulfate after micronization lowers the glass transition (Tg) temperature of the amorphous parts present at particle surface, which enhances particle mobility for more rearrangement associated with water expelling. This transformation may result in deviation from the original particle size obtained after milling out of respirable range. DSC and X-ray diffraction show no detectable amorphous drug since no detectable Tg observed. Alternatively, water vapor sorption shows a small amount of amorphous salbutamol sulfate at the particle surface, which recrystallizes at 52.8% relative humidity after approximately 2 weeks of conditioning. Conclusion: The amorphous regions can be generated in crystalline materials during processing. The level of amorphous materials can affect every step of pharmaceutical formulation, storage, and stability. However, quantification of low levels of amorphous content still poses considerable challenge. This study confirms that, the water vapor sorption technique is useful in the quantification of a small amount of drug amorphous content.
  757 109 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Medical education in Libya: Challenges, hopes, and recommendations
Arif Al-Areibi
January-June 2019, 4(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_3_19  
The purpose of this review is to examine the current Libyan medical education system, look at its positive and negative aspects, and to provide suggestions and recommendations that could help improve the quality of the system today. The current Libyan medical education system has aged, and unfortunately, cannot meet both societal needs and the new requirements from the World Federation of Medical Education (WFME). The WFME issued a strong statement to all international medical schools to meet its new accreditation standards by 2023 in order for them to be recognized internationally. Lacking almost 70% of the international standards, Libyan medical schools will require considerable amount of time and resources to solve the issue. The process of changing and updating the system will involve all parts of the learning environment, including students, teachers, curriculums, resources, research, and governing bodies.
  650 60 -
EDITORIAL
Assessment and prospective for Libyan international Medical University Journal: New phase of development
Abdalla Salem Elhwuegi
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_1_18  
  566 124 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence and types of bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract at a tertiary care hospital in the City of Tripoli
Ahmed Atia, Ahmed Abired, Anees Ammar, Najla Elyounsi, Abdulsalam Ashour
July-December 2018, 3(2):54-58
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_23_18  
Aim: The study aimed to determine the bacterial etiology of upper tract respiratory infection in Abu-Sitta Hospital, Tripoli, Libya. Subjects and Methods: A total of 470 sputum specimens and 60 throat swabs were collected over a period of 1 year (From January 2014 to December 2014) from patients presented with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract infection at Abu-Sitta Hospital. Enrolled patients were sorted as inpatients or outpatients and by gender. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Variables were expressed as percentages. Differences in age and gender were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Of the total 530 screened samples, 80.5% were culture positive, where bacterial pathogens were detected in 83.7% of sputum specimens and in 56.5% of throat swabs. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most prevalent (48%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%), Enterobacter (8%), Citrobacter freundil (5%), and latest with Klebsiella (3%). Conclusions: The spectrum of pathogenic bacterium causing upper respiratory infection in Abu-Sitta Hospital is considerably wide, with S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa being the major causative bacteria.
  595 61 -
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in nondiabetic Libyan females
Hawa Juma El-Shareif
January-June 2018, 3(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_9_18  
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, including central obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension (HPN), elevated triglycerides (TGs), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). MS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Objective: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of MS and its components among nondiabetic Libyan females using the definition proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Methods: A total of 122 randomly selected nondiabetic Libyan females were included in the study. Detailed medical history was obtained from all participants. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index and waist–hip ratio were calculated. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were collected. Standard oral glucose tolerance test with 75 GM glucose was performed. The MS was defined by ATP III and International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: According to NCEP definition, the prevalence of the MS in the study group was 42.6%. The most common component was abdominal obesity (67.2%). FBG was ≥ 100 mg/dl in 47.5%. The prevalence of both HPN and low HDL-C was 45.9%. About 26.2% of the participants have their TG ≥ 150 mg/dl; all were MS patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of MS and cardiovascular risk factors were high among Libyan females. Public health authorities and health-care providers should implement strategies for prevention, screening, and management of cardiovascular risk factors to reduce the burden of its potential complications.
  559 73 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Impact of chronic stress on cardiovascular system: Libyan conflict health perspective. Part one: Types of chronic stresses
Abdalla Salem Elhwuegi, Lamis Ali Teebar
July-December 2018, 3(2):31-35
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_25_18  
Recent studies have provided clear and convincing evidence that chronic stress contributes significantly to the pathogenesis and expression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This bibliography is a systematic review on the impact of chronic stress on the cardiovascular system with a special reflection on the Libyan conflict. It is divided into two parts, Part 1 deals with types of chronic stresses, while Part 2 deals with mechanisms involved in chronic stress and their treatments. Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were used to search for peer-reviewed papers dealing with the review theme. Stress can be classified into acute stress and chronic stress. Chronic stress can stem from underlying factors such as economic stress, social isolation stress, posttraumatic stress, and job strain stress. Economic stress is emerging as an important determinant of perceived health where different studies have found an inverse trend between risk factor burden and cardiovascular disease prevalence in urban and rural communities in high-, middle-, and low-income regions. Social stress is another factor that has been reported to be associated with a 2–3 fold increase in the incidence of CVD. Moreover, multiple studies have shown that patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have increased resting heart rate, increased startle reaction, and increased blood pressure as responses to traumatic events. CVD is one of the health outcomes whose links with work stress have been well established based on numerous prospective studies.
  545 70 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sutureless and glue-free conjunctival autograft for pterygium surgery: A preliminary report about Libyan experience
Naeima M Elzlitni, Sabah S Eldressi, Samar A Bukhatwa
January-June 2018, 3(1):16-19
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_8_18  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of sutureless and glue-free conjunctival autograft for the management of primary pterygium in terms of complications such as loss of graft, graft dehiscence, and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods: A case series study was carried out in March 2015 at Nastaein private sanatorium, Zlitin, Libya. Twenty-seven eyes of 23 patients with primary pterygium were included in this study. Pterygium excision with conjunctival autografting without using sutures or glue was done to all patients. The patients were followed up postoperatively after 1 h, 1st day postoperatively, and then 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.9 ± 8.55 years (range: 43–71 years); 65% were male. Mean follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2 months. Changes of visual acuity were not noticed in any of these patients. Only one patient (3.7%) developed edge recession of the graft on the 1st postoperative day due to a wrong measurement of the size of the graft, and no other complications were noted. Cosmesis was excellent in all cases and no recurrence was noted. Conclusions: Sutureless and glue-free conjunctival autograft for primary pterygium surgery is a safe and effective way for the management of primary pterygium.
  511 82 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Impact of chronic stress on cardiovascular system: Libyan conflict health perspective part 2: Mechanisms and treatment strategies
Abdalla Salem Elhwuegi, Lamis Ali Teebar
July-December 2018, 3(2):36-41
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_26_18  
Recent studies have provided clear and convincing evidence that chronic stress contributes significantly to the pathogenesis and expression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This bibliography is a systematic review on the impact of chronic stress on the cardiovascular system with a special reflection on the Libyan conflict. It is divided into two parts, Part 1 deals with types of chronic stresses, while Part 2 deals with mechanisms involved in chronic stress and their treatments. Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were used to search for peer-reviewed papers dealing with the review theme. Mechanisms responsible for the development of chronic stress are either behavioral or biological. Behavioral factors include lifestyles (e.g., smoking, alcohol, and physical inactivity). Biological mechanisms include sympathetic overdrive, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis overactivity, and low activity of central gamma-aminobutyric acid. Chronic stress managements and treatment strategies include psychological treatment like cognitive behavioral interventions, breathing techniques like Yoga and/or pharmacological treatments like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and drugs that inhibit sympathetic hyperactivity.
  499 49 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
New experience in cochlear implantation at Benghazi Medical Center
Agila Al-Barasi, Yosef Hassan S. Abdulkarim
July-December 2018, 3(2):65-68
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_15_18  
Aims: Deafness is a pathology that interferes in several aspects of the emotional, psychological, social, and intellectual life. Cochlear implants are electronic devices that allow hearing rehabilitation. This study is carried out to show our experience in cochlear implantation at Benghazi Medical Center, Libya. Patients and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was performed over 110 patients at the Otorhinolaryngology Department, Benghazi Medical Center, between August 2012 and April 2016. The patients were analyzed according to the age, sex, type of implant inserted, approach, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Two types of implant devices were used: cochlear and MED-EL. Surgery was done by the same surgical team. Results: Seventy of all patients operated for cochlear implantation were male (63.6%), while forty were female (36.4%). One hundred and four (94.5%) were children and 6 (5.55%) were adults. One hundred (91%) cases were prelingually deaf and 10 (9%) were postlingual deafness. Telemetry showed satisfactory neural response in 107 (97.35) cases. Failure to insert the electrode in 1 (0.9%) case as the cochlea was ossified bilaterally. Extrusion of the receiver took place in 1 (0.9%) case. One (0.9%) patient had extrusion after 2 years; another 1 (0.9%) had wound dehiscence. Despite our few years of experience in cochlear implantation, we have achieved the requirement of our patients. The need for structured services and trained professionals in this type of procedure is clear.
  440 51 -
Determination of some heavy metals in cosmetic products collected from Benghazi-Libya markets during 2016
Salwa Y.S. Rahil, Intisar A Elshara, Nagwa H.S. Ahmida, Mohamed H.S. Ahmida
January-June 2019, 4(1):10-17
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_44_18  
Introduction: Cosmetics have been utilized by most of the people irrespective of their race, gender, or age to beautify, modify, or improve the physical appearance. Many cosmetic products contain heavy metals as ingredients or impurities. Recent research has reported that these metals can cause many types of health and skin problems. Aims: The aim of this study is to detect the levels of heavy metals in some cosmetic products that are available in cosmetic shops around the city of Benghazi. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five of cheap facial cosmetic products that are widely in demand in cosmetic shops in Benghazi were collected in April 2016. The samples included eight kohl, seven eyeliners, and ten lipsticks. Metals including iron, copper, chromium, zinc, lead, and cadmium were analyzed in the selected samples using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer after suitable digestion process. Results: Our results indicated that iron and copper were detected in all samples with concentration ranges varying from 0.5 to 124.5 mg/kg for iron and 1.8–51.4 mg/kg for copper. The concentration ranges of chromium, zinc, cadmium, and lead were varied from 0.0 to 7.25 mg/kg, 0.0 to 22.75, 0.0 to 125.0 mg/kg, and 0.0 to 20.25 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that the selected metals were detected in most of the samples at varying concentrations. Kohl samples have the highest concentration of the analyzed metals. According to the maximum allowed limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for toxic metals in cosmetics, there was only one sample that had lead concentration higher than the maximum limit recommended by the WHO. In addition, there were twenty samples that had concentrations of cadmium above the WHO legislation limits.
  421 61 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Knowledge, attitudes and practices of personal protective measures among hemodialysis nurses in Benghazi
LJ Abdulmalek
July-December 2017, 2(2):101-111
DOI:10.21502/limuj.013.02.2017  
BACKGROUND: This study intended to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding standard precautions concerning health care-associated infections (HAIs) among hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Benghazi. METHODS: the study was a cross sectional study carried out during the period from 1-3-2014 till 30-9-2014. The data was gathered from hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Benghazi by using a questionnaire and by direct interview. RESULTS: There were a total of 59 hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Benghazi. All agreed to participate in the study. Although 92% of the nurses knew that their hands could be a source of health care-associated infections, but only 52% of nurses washed their hands before contacting another patient. Gloves were actually used by 98% of the nurses. 46% of the nurses were usually wearing masks when contacting a patient. Books and journals were the main source of information about (HAI) among 52% of the nurses. CONCLUSION: The nurses' knowledge of health care-associated infections did not modify their adherence to hand hygiene practices. This study recommend training programs for hemodialysis nurses about promoting higher hand hygiene standards and potential use of personal protective measures during their shifts in hemodialyais centers.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  313 153 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sexual functions of female patients with chronic liver disease from two centers in Nigeria
Olusegun Adekanle, Samuel Anu Olowookere, Oluwasegun Ijarotimi, Dennis Ndububa, Oladele Oluwafemi Ayodeji
July-December 2018, 3(2):59-64
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_24_18  
Background: Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a disease with significant morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This study assessed the sexual functions of women with chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) designated as cases and normal women as controls. Methods: A prospective, comparative, case–control study of CHB, LC, HCC, and controls. Consenting cases and controls completed a self-administered Female Sexual Function Questionnaire (FSFI). Bio-data was obtained for all participants and cases were graded using the Child–Turcotte–Pugh scores (CTP). Data obtained were entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: A total of 176 women completed the study, comprising 88 cases and 88 controls. Mean age (standard deviation) was 39.5 + 8.5 years and 40.5 + 8.2 years for cases and controls, respectively. Cases comprised CHB – 46, LC – 25, and HCC – 17, and their CTP classes were CTP A, 54; CTP B, 22; and CTP C, 12. The FSFI scores for CHB compared with controls were not statistically significant in all domains of the FSFI. The FSFI scores for LC and HCC in all domains were statistically significant compared with controls. Total mean FSFI scores for cases in CTP Class C showed sexual dysfunction, where 13.6% of CLD and 6.8% of all participants had sexual dysfunction and none among the controls. Conclusions: Females with advanced CLD had sexual dysfunction. Sexual concerns of females with CLD should be inquired for and treated.
  404 50 -
The effects of preoperative pregabalin administration on postoperative pain on Libyan patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Munira Ali Elmansouri, Aisha Mohamed Dugani, Salah Ahmed Adala
July-December 2018, 3(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_21_18  
Objective: The present prospective study was carried out in Surgical Department of Tripoli Central Hospital with the aim to evaluate the effect of preoperative single dose of 150 mg pregabalin in reducing postoperative pain and analgesic consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients of both sexes in the age of 18–60 years undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into two equal groups of 30 patients each. The pregabalin group received 150 mg oral pregabalin 1 h before induction of anesthesia and a placebo group received a matching placebo orally. Variables measured included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), duration of surgery, time to first dose and total dose of meperidine after recovery, and the visual analog scale (VAS – static and dynamic). The occurrence of nausea and vomiting during the first 24 h postoperative was also recorded. Results: No significant difference was found between the meperidine and the placebo groups regarding age, sex, BMI, or duration of surgery. The time of first meperidine dose required to alleviate pain after surgery was significantly four times longer in the pregabalin group as compared to the placebo group. The total dose of meperidine required for pregabalin group was significantly lower than that required for placebo group. Moreover, VAS was significantly decreased in the pregabalin group compared to placebo group both at static and dynamic states only 1 h after recovery. Conclusion: This study validates the preoperative use of a single dose of pregabalin in attenuating pain intensity postoperatively and reducing total analgesic consumption.
  373 67 -
Patients' satisfaction, expectation, care, and maintenance of fixed prosthesis
Nada Kashbur, Iman Bugaighis
January-June 2019, 4(1):26-32
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_42_18  
Aims: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the level of Libyan patients' expectations of and satisfaction with fixed prostheses (crowns, veneers, fixed partial denture, and dental implants). A further aim was to explore the level of patient's awareness and application of oral hygiene care pertaining to the fixed prosthesis. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Self-reported questionnaires were administered to 320 patients wearing fixed prosthesis. The questions explored patient's subjective perception of and satisfaction with treatment outcome concerning esthetics, phonation, and masticatory function. In addition to questions related to their applied oral hygiene measures. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests were undertaken between the examined variables. P value was set at P < 0.05. Results: The majority (80.9%) of the patients were satisfied with their prosthesis; 78.4% were fulfilled with their chewing function; 85.3% were pleased with the esthetics; and 39.4% were satisfied by their speech. The fixed prosthesis met the expectations or partial expectations of 82.8% of the participants. Only 9.3% of the sample did not follow proper oral health care. There were moderate but significant correlation between the level of patients' expectations with and satisfaction from their prostheses (r = 0.387, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the weak correlation between patient satisfaction and their application of oral hygiene measures was significant (r = 0.130, P = 0.020). Conclusions: Several factors (masticatory function, esthetic, and patient expectations) were correlated with the overall patients' satisfaction with their prosthesis. Dentist should continue to emphasize on the significance of maintaining good oral hygiene practice to improve patient satisfaction with their prostheses.
  389 48 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Feedback role in enhancing the professional growth of the medical student and the teacher
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-December 2018, 3(2):70-70
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_30_18  
  339 47 -
Is metabolic syndrome truly prevailing in nondiabetic Libyan women
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
July-December 2018, 3(2):69-69
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_39_18  
  268 34 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The redesign of amoxicillin capsules as a tablet dosage form using direct compression
Salem K Elgahmi, Nawal M Alrishei, Rabeaa H Algaraboly, Aisha A Altrablesy, Idris Mohamed El-Mahdi
January-June 2019, 4(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_45_18  
Introduction: Solid dosage forms are the most commonly used dosage form for drug delivery, and tablets are more popular than capsules because of its lower production cost, minimal potential of content tampering, and the large number of designs of tablets for various applications. Aims: The aim of this work is to redesign amoxicillin hard gelatin capsules (HGCs), commonly filled into HGCs, into tablet dosage form by employing preformulation principles. Materials and Methods: Amoxicillin capsules were obtained from the local market for this purpose. Experiments included studies on flowability and effect of compression force, followed by addition of excipients, production of tablets by direct compression, and evaluation employing standard methods of friability, hardness, disintegration, dissolution, and simulation of release kinetics. Results: The flowability of powder was estimated using Carr's index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, and bulk density. The flowability was found poor for amoxicillin alone or with starch but improved with talc. Compression force was found to be a significant factor on friability, hardness, and disintegration. The disintegration time was rapid in case of tablets containing starch compared to amoxicillin powder compressed alone. It was essential to include small amounts of disintegrant and a lubricant to optimize tablet properties. Dissolution rates for the prepared tablets were found to be acceptable, while some formulations showed a slow release profiles corresponding to their slow disintegration. Release kinetics was found to follow both the zero-order and matrix models. Conclusion: Amoxicillin capsules can be modified to a tablet dosage form with simple handling of preformulation properties.
  258 25 -
EDITORIAL
Higher education in Libya: Challenges and future plans (in Arabic language)
Mustafa M El-Fakhri, Salma A Bukhatwa
January-June 2016, 1(1):27-34
DOI:10.21502/limuj.004.01.2016  
Educational institutions are the principle pillars for establishment of sustainable human development which leads to community progress. Therefore, it is essentially important to develop their infrastructure, programs, and financial resources and assure the quality of their outcome to effectively respond and fulfill community needs. With current unprecedented scientific advancement in all aspects of life, it is becoming a formidable task to stay internationally competent. Continuous development and improving educational programs are therefore a must. The future requirements of education are choosing quality over quantity and adopting modern, reliable teaching methods in order to acquire knowledge, develop skills and attitudes that comply with good professional practice to meet the challenge of globalization. Education in Libya is free for everyone from elementary school up to university level but the general decline in the quality of Libyan higher educational system within the last four decades is well recognized. The efficiency of its product has been proven to be inconsistent with the national economical and developmental needs. Internal challenges of the higher educational system in Libya that affecting its own performance are presented in this paper, even though this does not under estimate the effect of other external threats, but they just remain beyond the scope of this paper. These challenges include; lack of a national strategic plan, poor primary and secondary school output, excessive students' admission, structural problems, poor infrastructure, administrative and legal problems, poor academic staff performance, outdated curricula and teaching methods, poor financial resources, poor research and postgraduate programs. Inevitably, the first step in treatment of such situation is to adopt a national strategy for higher education to know where we stand and to decide where to go and how to reach there. This of course in addition to linking educational programs to local, national and international market needs and promoting investment in education.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  195 72 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus isolates in Tripoli Central Hospital, Libya
SM Aetrugh, MA Aboshkiwa, WM Husien, ME Erhuma, M Corrente, E Grandolfo, MS Ellabib, TM Emahbes, MI Mustafa
January-June 2017, 2(1):74-83
DOI:10.21502/limuj.010.02.2017  
Background: Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci could lead to increased morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the prevalence of infections with these organisms in healthcare facilities and in the community in Tripoli. This study investigated the in vitro susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) to antimicrobial agents, and determined the molecular characteristics of MRSA. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study aiming at determining the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of (MRSA) and (MRCNS) isolated from non-duplicated clinical specimens in Tripoli Central Hospital (TCH) between June 2013 and June 2014. Isolates were identified using standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion method and automated systems. DNA of the MRSA isolates was used for PCR to determine the molecular analysis. Results: 218 isolates of Staphylococci were obtained, 71.6% were coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) and 28.4% were coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS). 39.7% of CPS were MRSA, while 75.8% of CNS were MRCNS. The rates of hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) among MRSA isolates were 61.3% and 38.7% respectively. A similar trend was detected among MRCNS isolates, where 74.5% were HA-MRCNS and 25.5% were CA-MRCNS. All the MRSA and MRCNS isolates were susceptible (100%) to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin and moxifloxacin. Generally, hospital-acquired strains showed higher resistance rates than community-acquired ones to the most commonly tested non-beta-lactam antibiotics. 35.5% of all staphylococcal isolates exhibited mecA+ gene and 12.9% expressed mecC+. Meanwhile, 38.7% of MRSA isolates harbored both mecA and mecC. However, 12.9% of MSSA isolates were negative for both mecA and mecC. The mecA gene was detectable in 59.1% and 40.9 % of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA isolates respectively. Conclusion: Hospital-acquired MRSA and MRCNS isolates had higher resistance rates to non-beta lactam antimicrobial drugs than the respective community-acquired isolates. This was shown by early detection of mecC gene among MRSA isolates.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Tooth size discrepancy in different malocclusion groups in Libya: a pilot study
F Elsheikhi, I Bugaighis, T Hamed
July-December 2017, 2(2):92-100
DOI:10.21502/limuj.012.02.2017  
Background: Orthodontists need to evaluate intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy (TSD) prior to initiating treatment in order to achieve a stable treatment. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of TSD in Libyan subjects among different malocclusion groups. Methods: A sample of 60 dental casts of Libyan subjects with different types of malocclusions (Class I, Class II div 1 and Class III) were included in the study. Each malocclusion group (20 dental casts) included equal numbers of males and females, 12-17 years of age. Mesio-Distal tooth measurements were extracted to compute the anterior and overall TSD ratios. Paired Student t-test was used to detect significant discrepancies between the paired teeth measurements. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey Honestly tests were undertaken to detect significant discrepancies among the malocclusion groups. Results: Paired t-test revealed that there were no significant discrepancies between the paired tooth widths except for the upper first molars, upper first premolars, lower lateral incisors and lower canines (P<0.010). ANOVA found no significant differences in the mean anterior TSD ratio in regard to malocclusion groups. However, a significant disparity was noticed in the mean overall TSD ratio among the different malocclusion categories (P<0.04). Conclusion: Statistically significant TSD between the examined malocclusion groups were observed only in the mean overall TSD ratio.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Childhood tuberculosis in a South-East Nigerian tertiary hospital: Treatment outcomes and determinants
Chinyere Ukamaka Onubogu, Ebele Francesca Ugochukwu, Arthur Ebelenna Anyabolu, Juliet Onyebuchi Ojukwu
January-June 2019, 4(1):18-25
DOI:10.4103/LIUJ.LIUJ_47_18  
Background and Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Understanding the barriers to successful childhood TB treatment is vital to curbing the scourge of childhood TB. This study examined the outcomes and factors that influence the outcomes of childhood TB treatment in a South-East Nigerian tertiary hospital. Methods: A 10-year review of the medical records of under-15 year olds, who received anti-TB treatment at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, was carried out. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Majority of the 501 childhood TB cases were new (89.6%) and pulmonary (73.3%) TB cases. TB-HIV coinfection occurred in 42.5% of cases. The rate of successful treatment was 62.9%. About 57.5% completed treatment, 5.4% were cured, 7.0% were transferred out, 21.4% were lost to follow-up, 0.4% had treatment failure while 8.4% died. Majority (61.6%) of deaths or loss to follow-up occurred during the first 2 months of treatment. Factors significantly associated with treatment outcomes were ascertainment of HIV status (P = 0.049), disease site (P = 0.013), nutritional status (P = 0.039), Mantoux test result (P = 0.002), and period of treatment (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Findings indicate high rate of unsuccessful childhood TB treatment outcomes. Efforts should be intensified to ensure improved outcomes through proactive search for childhood TB cases, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as adherence to and completion of treatment. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups including those with unknown HIV status, extrapulmonary TB, and severe malnutrition. It is imperative to determine the HIV status of all childhood TB cases.
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