Nicotine dependence and role of pharmacist in nicotine addiction control

Fathi M. Sherif



There are about one billion smokers in the world and death toll is almost six million people in a year. By 2020, death will increase to more than 70% in some developing countries. The tobacco use is high and is varied from one country to another. Tobacco addiction inhibits any decrease in morbidity and mortality and nicotine dependence is assumed to be present if tolerance, withdrawal and compulsive desire to consume tobacco measures are satisfied. It is well-documented that environmental and genetic factors influence the possibility of nicotine addiction. Thus, action is needed to be taken to avoid this from happening.

     Governments and administrators have to play a vital role in smoking control. People at large needs to be involved in the fight against tobacco.

     Within society, health professionals as physicians and pharmacists have a leading role to play because they practice their profession in particular health-sector. Community pharmacists are in an ideal position as one of the most accessible health care professionals to fulfill fundamental role in public health as key providers of tobacco cessation support and prevention services. Pharmacists have a considerable knowledge of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, dosage and formulation of drugs used in smoking cessation therapy. Pharmacists have the opportunity to advice smokers to stop and some pharmacists with special training will be able to provide them with treatment. Media campaigns (pharmacy and non-pharmacy groups) to encourage smoking cessation and discourage smoking initiation can be useful and effective. With any tobacco-use prevention program, it should always be remembered that long time is needed before success becomes effective and apparent.  


Full Text:



Green DR, Rodgman A. Tobacco chemist’s research conference. A half-century of advances in analytical methodology of tobacco and its products. Recent Advances in Tobacco Science.1996;22:131-304.

Hoffmann D, Hoffmann I. The changing cigarette, 1950-1995. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1997;50:307-64.

Zevin S, Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL. Clinical Pharmacology of nicotine. Clinical Dermatology. 1998;16:557-64.

Benowitz NL. Nicotine addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;362:2295-303.

Benozwitz NL, Porchet H, Sheiner L, Jacob P. Nicotine absorption and cardiovascular effects with smokeless tobacco use: comparison with cigarette and nicotine gum. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1988;44:23-8.

De Biasi M, Dani JA. Reward, addiction, withdrawal to nicotine. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2011;34:105-30.

Govind AP, Vezina P, Green WN. Nicotine-induced upregulation of nicotinic receptors: underlying mechanisms and relevance to nicotine. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2009;78:756-65.

Rose JE, Mulchin AG, Lokitz ST, Turkington TG, Heoskovic J, Behm FM, Garg S, Garg PK. Kinetics of brain nicotine accumulation in dependent and nondependent smokers assessed with PET and cigarettes containing 11C-nicotine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 2010;107: 5190-5.

Nestler EJ. Genes and addiction. Nature Genetics. 2000;26:227-81.

Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Pergadia ML, Khroyan TV, Swan GE. Genetics of nicotine dependence and pharmacotherapy. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2008;75: 178-95.

Reitz C, Mayeux R. Alzheimer’s disease: epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, risk factors and biomarkers. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2014;88(4):640-51.

Ritz B, Lee PC, Lassen CF, Arah OA. Parkinson disease and smoking revisited: Ease of quitting is an early sign of the disease. Neurology. 2014;83:1396-402.

Willoughby JO, Pope KJ, Eaton V. Nicotine as an antiepileptic agent in ADNFLE: an on of on study. Epilepsia. 2003;44:1238-40.

Perkins KA. Weight gain following smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting of Clinical Psychology. 1993;61:768-77.

Shiffman S, Scharf DM, Shadel WG, Gwaltney CJ, Dang Q, Paton SM, Clark DB. Analyzing milestones in smoking cessation: illustration in a nicotine patch trial in adult smokers. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology. 2006;74:276-85.

Sheeran P, Orbell S. Self-schemas and the theory of planned behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology. 2000;30:533-50.

Haustein KO. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine dependence. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2000;38:273-90.

Tang JL, Law M, Wald N. How effective is nicotine replacement therapy in helping people to stop smoking? British Medical Journal. 1994;308: 21-6.

Silagy C, Mant D, Fowler G, Lodge M. Meta-analysis on efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies in smoking cessation. Lancet. 1994;343:139-42.

Read DO. Preventing adolescent nicotine addiction: what can one do?. American Academy of Physician Assistants. 1993;6:703-10.

Rose JE, Salley A, Behm FM, Bates JE, Westman EC. Reinforcing effects of nicotine and non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke. Psychopharmacology. 2010;210:1-12.

Hammond EC. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. Journal National Cancer Institute Monographs. 1966;19:127-204.

Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking; 50 years’ observations on male British doctors. British Medical Journal. 2004;328:1519-28.

Weissfeld JL, Holloway JL. Treatment for cigarettes smoking in a department of veterans affairs outpatient clinic. International Archives of Medicine. 1991;151:973-77.

Thomas D, Abramson MJ, Bonevski B, Poole S, Weeks GR, Dooley MJ, George J. A pharmacist-led system-change smoking cessation intervention for smokers (GIVE UP FOR GOOD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trail. Trials. 2013;14:148-60.

Dent LA, Harris KJ, Noonan CW. Tobacco interventions delivered by pharmacists: a summary and systematic review. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1040-51.

Kenderick JS, Merritt RK. Women and smoking: an updated for the 1990s. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996;175: 528-35.


  • There are currently no refbacks.